Guidelines

Description of tags

a.       Word Class:

                                                              i.      Noun

1.       NŒman - N

2.       NŒman Kartrarthaka - NK

3.       NŒman BhŒvŒrthaka - NB

4.       NŒman AbhidhŒna NA

5.       NŒman AbhidhŒna Dea NAD

6.       NŒman AbhidhŒna Pum_apatya NAP

7.       NŒman AbhidhŒna Str_apatya NAS

8.       NŒman AbhidhŒna TadrŒja NAT

                                                            ii.      Compounds

1.       NCDI Nāmapada which is a Compound of Dvandva Itaretara

2.       NCDS Nāmapada which is a Compound of Dvandva Samhara

3.       NCT2 Nāmapada in 2nd case Compounded to form Tatpurua dvity

4.       NCT3 Nāmapada in 3rd case Compounded to form Tatpurua trty

5.       NCT4 Nāmapada in 4th case Compounded to form Tatpurua caturth

6.       NCT5 Nāmapada in 5th case Compounded to form Tatpurua pacam

7.       NCT6 Nāmapada in 6th case Compounded to form Tatpurua ah

8.       NCT7 Nāmapada in 7th case Compounded to form Tatpurua saptam

9.       NCAl Nāmapada Compounded without the deletion of case inflection to form Aluk

10.   NCNT Nāmapada Compounded with negation to form Na Tatpurua

11.   NCK Karmadhrya Compound

12.   NCD Dvigu Compound

13.   NCB Bahuvrhi Compound

14.   NCA Avyaya Compound - Adverbial Compound

                                                          iii.      Pronoun

1.       SarvaNŒman - SN

2.       SarvaNŒman Uttama - SNU

3.       SarvaNŒman Madhyama - SNM

4.       SarvaNŒman tmŒrthaka - SNA

5.       SarvaNŒman NirdeŒtmaka SNN

6.       SarvaNŒman PrŒnŒrthika SNP

7.       SarvaNŒman Cit-cana-Œdi SNC

8.       SarvaNŒman SŒmbandhika SNS

                                                           iv.      Participles

1.       Kdanta VartamŒna 1 KV1

2.       Kdanta VartamŒna 2 KV2

3.       Kdanta Agami 1 - KA1

4.       Kdanta Agami 2 KA2

5.       Kdanta Bhta 1 KB1

6.       Kdanta Bhta 2 KB2

7.       Kdanta VIdhyarthaka 1 KVI1

8.       Kdanta VIdhyarthaka 2 KVI2

9.       Kdanta VIdhyarthaka 3 KVI3

                                                             v.      Verbs

1.       laT lakAra Vartamana - laTV

2.       liT lakAra Bhuta - liTB

3.       luT lakAra Agami - luTAg

4.       lR^iT lakAra Agami - lR^iTAg

5.       loT lakAra Ajna - loTA

6.       la~N lakAra Bhuta - la~NB

7.       li~N lakAra Vidhi - li~NVi

8.       li~N lakAra AshI - li~NAs

9.       lu~N lakAra Bhuta - lu~NB

10.   lR^i~N lakAra Sanketa - lR^i~NS

                                                           vi.      Indeclinables

1.       AVyaya AV

2.       AVyaya SŒmbandhika AVS

3.       AVyaya SamucCayavŒci AVSC

4.       AVyaya Viyogavaci AVV

5.       AVyaya NiedhŒrthaka AVN

6.       Avyaya PrŒnŒrthika AVP

7.       AVyaya KriyŒVieaa AVKV

8.       AVyaya KtvŒnta AVK

9.       AVyaya Lyabanta AVL

10.   AVyaya Tumunnanta AVT

11.   UDgŒra UD

b.      Feature sub-tags

1.       Gender sub-tags p, s, and n

2.       Case and Number tags 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1 through 8.3

3.       Verb base modifying sub-tags Nd (Nāmadhātu), Yn, Sn (Sannanta), Ni (ijanta)

4.       Verbal Preposition sub-tags UPA UPAsarga or UPApada

5.       Verbal Pada sub-tags parasmai- P and Atmane - A

6.       Voice sub-tags (Kartari is default and is not marked) Kr and Bh

7.       Person and number sub-tags 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, through 3.3

c.       Puncuation tags & other

1.       | PUN_VV - Punctuation Vkya Virma - sentence end marker, half shloka marker, etc

2.       || PUN_SA - Punctuation loka Anta - shloka end marker

3.       , PUN_LV Punctuation Laghu Virma - comma

4.       ? PUN_PC Punctuation Prana Cihna - question mark

5.       ! PUN_AC Punctuation carya Cihna - exclamatory mark

6.       PUN_UC Punctuation Uddharana Cihna 1 - quote open

7.       PUN_SC Punctuation Samvarana Cihna 1 - quote close

8.       PUN_UCd Punctuation Uddharana Cihnadvaya - double quote open

9.       PUN_SCd Punctuation Samvarana Cihnadvaya - double quote close

10.   ( PUN_VU1 Punctuation Valaya-Uuddharana Cihna 1 - open braces

11.   ) PUN_VS1 Punctuation Valaya-Samvarana Cihna 1 - close braces

12.   [ PUN_VU2 Punctuation Valaya-Uddharana Cihna 2 - open square bracket

13.   ] PUN_VS2 Punctuation Valaya-Samvarana Cihna 2 - close square bracket

14.   { PUN_VU3 Punctuation Valaya-Uuddharana Cihna 3 - open flower bracket

15.   } PUN_VS3 Punctuation Valaya-Samvarana Cihna 3 - close flower bracket

16.   - PUN_DS dash

17.   : PUN_CL colon

18.   ; PUN_VA Vkya-anga Anta - semi-colon

19.   / PUN_BS Punctuation back slash

20.   + PUN_PL - Punctuation plus sign

21.   = PUN_EQ - Punctuation equal sign

22.   . PUN_BIN bindu - Punctuation dot

23.   * PUN_LAG - Laghvikarana - abbreviation marker ( पं* for पंडित)

24.   AB AB AnyaBh - foreign word

25.   SAM-SAM SAM-SAM hyphenated number (१९४७-२००६)

26.   AJ AJnata

 

 

Nouns

NŒman tag N - covers all the common nouns.

Eg. grama[N_p_2.1] janapadasya[N_p_6.1] arthe tyajet|(Pa.) manunŒ nirmitŒ ayodhyŒ nŒma nagar[N_s_1.1] Œst | (BŒl.)

purodhasŒ[N_p_3.1] ca mukhya mŒ viddhi pŒrtha bhaspatim |

(Gta)

ida deva-nirmita pŒyasa[N_n_1.1] ghŒa | (Balaramayana)

NŒman Kartrarthaka tag NK covers agent nouns.

Eg. kartu[NK_p_6.1] psitatama karma | (A .)

adhyŒpaka[NK_p_1.1] chŒtrŒn pŒ hayati |

sevaka[NK_p_1.1] svŒmina dve i | (Pa.)

annadŒta[NK_p_8.1] sukh bhava |

NŒman BhŒvŒrthaka tag NB covers impersonal nouns and abstract nouns

Eg. madhurŒdhipate gamana[NB_n_1.1] madhuram | (MadhurŒ aka)

pa hata na asti mrkhatvam[NB_n_1.1] | (SubhŒita)

vyakulatva[NB_n_1.1] na hdi vartate |

yena prabho citte laghutŒ[NB_s_1.1] vŒ piŒ syŒt tat karma sevaka

prŒa-tyŒge api na kuryat | (Pa.)

sahŒyatŒm[NB_s_2.1] kuru |

 

NŒman AbhidhŒna tag NA covers all proper nouns of persons and places

Eg. rŒma[NA_p_1.1] nŒma janai ruta | (RŒm.)

himalaya[NA_p_1.1] nŒma nagŒdhirŒja asti | (KumŒrasambhava)

rŒmagiryŒrameu[NA_p_7.3] vasati cakre | (Meghadta)

daaratha[NA_p_1.1] nŒma rŒjari avartata | (BŒl.)

stŒyŒ[NA_s_1.1] carita mahat | (RŒm.)

asti nagar ujjayin[NA_s_1.1] nŒma |

murkha! rŒjŒ brahmadatta[NA_p_1.1], nagara

kŒmpilyam[NA_n_1.1] iti abhidhyatŒm | (SvapnavasavŒdatta)

asti dŒkiŒtye janapade mahilŒropya[NA_n_1.1] nŒma nagaram |

(Pa.)

 

NŒman AbhidhŒna Dea tag NAD covers a small set of Country Names in Sanskrit which are used in plural.

Eg. agŒnŒ viaya agŒ[NAD_p_1.3] | vagŒ[NAD_p_1.3]

suhmŒ[NAD_p_1.3] purŒ[NAD_p_1.3] | (M.Bh.)

rŒma daakŒn[NAD_p_2.3] pravivea | (RŒm.)

uttareu pŒcŒleu[NAD_p_7.3] mahŒbŒhu drupada rŒjŒ abhavat |

(M.BhŒrata)

sauvrŒ[NAD_p_1.3] kitava[NAD_p_1.3] prŒcyŒ[NAD_p_1.3]

pratcya-udcya-mŒlavŒ[NAD_p_1.3] | abhŒhŒ[NAD_p_1.3]

rasenŒ[NAD_p_1.3] ibaya[NAD_p_1.3] atha

vasŒtaya[NAD_p_1.3] || ŒlvŒrayŒ[NAD_p_1.3]

trigartŒ[NAD_p_1.3] ca amba hŒ[NAD_p_1.3]

kekayai[NAD_p_3.3] saha | dvadaa ete janapadŒ | (M.BhŒrata)

 

NŒman AbhidhŒna Pum_apatya tag NAP and NŒma AbhidhŒna Str_apatya tag NAS - represent Patronymic and Metronymic Proper Nouns

Eg. mŒruti[NAP_p_2.1] namata rŒkasŒntakam | (Hanumatstotra)

tvayŒ rŒghava[NAP_p_8.1] gaccheyam | (RŒm.)

sa ghosa dhŒrtarŒ rŒŒ[NAP_p_6.3] hdayŒni vi-adŒrayat | (Gta)

sa kaikeyyŒ[NAP_s_6.1] priyakŒranŒt vana jagŒma | (RŒm.)

tasya ca kausalyŒ[NA_s_1.1] sumitrŒ[NA_s_1.1] kaikey[NAP_s_1.1] iti

tisra bhŒryŒ abhavan | (BŒl.)

sukhina katriyŒ pŒrtha[NAS_p_8.1] labhante yuddham dam | (Gta)

prati-jagrŒha gŒgeya[NAS_p_1.1] ataa atha sahasraa |

(M.BhŒrata)

visunŒ tu tadŒ Œkae vainateya[NAS_p_1.1] sameyivŒn | (M.BhŒrata)

 

NŒman AbhidhŒna TadrŒja tag NAT covers a small set of names of katriya-s. These names are based on the country their reign.

 

Eg. ki tvŒ amanyata vaideha[NAT_p_1.1] pitŒ me mithilŒdhipa |

rŒma jŒmŒtara prŒpya striya purua-vigraham || (RŒm.)

sakhŒya mŒ vijŒnhi pŒcŒla[NAT_p_1.1] yadi manyase | (M.BhŒrata)

naiadha[NAT_p_2.1] varayŒmŒsa bhaim[NAP_s_1.1] dharmea

bhŒrata | (M.BhŒrata)

Compounds

NCDI Nāmapada which is a Compound of Dvandva Itaretara type (Coordinative Enumerative Compound which is a Noun, with gender and declensional sub-tags) (e.g. rmakau, rmalakmaabharataatrughn)

NCDS Nāmapada which is a Compound of Dvandva Samhara type (Coordinative Collective Compound which is a Noun, with neuter gender, and singular number and declensional sub-tags) (e.g. pipdam, hranidrbhayam)

NCT2 Nāmapada in 2nd case Compounded to form Tatpurua dvity type (Determinative Compound (accusative), with gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. karita, dukhtta)

NCT3 Nāmapada in 3rd case Compounded to form Tatpurua trty type (Determinative Compound (instrumental), with gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. haritrta, nakhabhinna, vkkalaha)

NCT4 Nāmapada in 4th case Compounded to form Tatpurua caturth type (Determinative Compound (dative), with gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. ypadru, gohitam)

NCT5 Nāmapada in 5th case Compounded to form Tatpurua pacam type (Determinative Compound (ablative), with gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. corabhayam, svargapatita)

NCT6 Nāmapada in 6th case Compounded to form Tatpurua ah type (Determinative Compound (genitive), with gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. rjapurua, devendra)

NCT7 Nāmapada in 7th case Compounded to form Tatpurua saptam type (Determinative Compound (locative), with gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. akaaua, vardhna)

NCAl Nāmapada Compounded without the deletion of case inflection to form Aluk type (gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. dhanajaya)

NCNT Nāmapada Compounded with negation to form Na Tatpurua type (gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. abrhmaa)

NCK Karmadhrya Compound (with gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. ghanayma, mukhakamalam, kasarpa, uklaka)

NCD Dvigu Compound (with gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. amŒtura, pa–cava, pa–catantram)

NCB Bahuvrhi Compound (with gender, number and declensional sug-tags) (e.g. pitŒmbara, cakrapani)

NCA Avyaya Compound (e.g. yathāakti, amāmi) Adverbial Compound

 

General Pronouns

SarvaNŒman SN tag It includes all the pronouns listed in SarvŒdigaa, except the personal, reflexive, demonstrative, interrogative, relative and indefinite pronouns.

Eg. vive[SN_p_1.3] surΠca[AVC] sarva[SN_n_1.1] jagat ca[AVC]

upa-sthitŒ vaikrtim Œ-namanti | (M.BhŒrata I.71.36)

ubhau[SN_p_1.2] mukham Œ-cchŒdya adhomukha ti hata | (BPN81)

Personal Pronouns

SarvaNŒman Uttama SNU and SarvaNŒman Madhyama SNM are the personal pronoun tags These tags donot have gender feature sub-tags. But the bhavat which is used as honorific second person pronoun does get forms in all the three genders. This word though being a second person pronoun does not concord with the second person form of the verb, but is used only with third person forms of a verb.[1] This is also used with prefixes atra and tatra in the sense of honour.

Eg. etat rŒjan dhana mahya[SNU_4.1] , tena dvyŒmi aha[SNU_1.1]

tvayŒ[SNM_3.1] | (M.BhŒrata II.54.28)

na anta asti mama[SNU_6.1] divyŒnŒ vibhtna parantapa |

(GtΠXI.40)

tata te[SNM_6.1] pitŒ yuvŒm[SNM_2.2] idŒnm[AV]

pra-sthŒpayati | (BPN78)

api sa-ni-dhatte atra tatra-bhavat[SNM_s_1.1] siddhimat nŒma

yogin ? (BPN4)

bhavati[SNM_s_8.1] bhikΠdehi | bhikΠbhavat[SNM_s_1.1]

dadŒtu | bhikŒ bhavati[SNM_s_8.1] dehi | (PŒraskara-ghya-stra)

 

muni etau pari-ghya svŒ[SNA_s_2.1] ktim apŒ hayat | (CR10)

 

Reflexive Pronouns

SarvaNŒman tmŒrthaka SNA tag is used for reflexive pronouns. In Sanskrit Œtman (in masculine singular), sva, Œtmiya, svakiya and nija words are used as reflexive pronouns. svayam is used as an adverb.

 

Eg. pratyaha prati-ava-keta nara caritam Œtmana[SNA_p_6.1] |

veda smti sadŒcŒra svasya[SNA_p_6.1] ca priyam

Œtmana | etat catur-vidha prŒhu sŒkŒt dharmasya

lakaam || (Manus. II.12)

mayŒ datta nija[SNA_p_2.1] putra vra vra ghŒt naya |

(M.BhŒrata. I.94.36)

 

Demonstrative Pronouns

SarvaNŒman NirdeŒtmaka SNN is the tag for demonstative pronouns. In Sanskrit there are four demonstrative pronouns idam (this), etad (this), adas (that) and tad (that)[2]. All the four take all the three gender, number and case feature sub-tags.

 

Eg. imŒ[SNN_s_2.1] ca te bhagin mŒ rodaya | (BPN76)

purŒvttam asmai[SNN_p_4.1] daarathŒya kathayŒmŒsa[P_li _1.1] | (CR12)

etau[SNN_p_2.2] muni pari-grhya svŒ krtim apŒ hayat[Ni_p_la_1.1] | (CR11)

praamya utthitŒn etŒn[SNN_p_2.3] amarŒn aravinda-locana

sphu am[AVKV] abhŒata[A_la_1.1] | (CR16)

tata sŒ[SNN_s_1.1] pariat dugdha-sŒgarŒt nir-agŒt[P_lu_1.1] |

(CR24)

asau[SNN_p_1.1] matimatŒ re ha | (M.Bharata II.38.16)

 

Interrogative Pronoun

SarvaNŒman PrŒnŒrthika SNP is the tag for interrogative pronouns. In Sanskrit the word kim is used as interrogative pronoun in all the three genders. It is also used with api in the sence of some or indefinite pronoun. Adjectival interrogatives are also formed like kiyat, kidr, katara, katama etc.

ena prabandha pra-yoktu ka[SNP_p_1.1] samartha | (CR10)

aya jana kasya[SNP_p_6.1] haste sam-arpita ? (A.IV)

kŒ[SNP_s_1.1] me janan ? ka[SNP_p_1.1] me tŒta ? (Moham.)

jeya kim[SNP_n_1.1] atra ? (Pa.)

kiyanta[SNP_p_2.1] ca eva kŒla te vapu etat bhaviyati ? (M.BhŒrata I.10.8)

mana-cakur-vihnasya kda[SNP_N_1.1] jvita

bhavet? (M.BhŒrata II.15.2)

Indefinite Pronoun

SarvaNŒman Cit-cana-adi SNC is the indefinite pronoun tag. Indefinite pronouns are formed by the addition of suffixes cit, -cana, or -api to the various cases of the pronoun kim in all the genders. (there is also occuances with svit)

 

kimapi[SNC_N_1.1] aprva rpakam abhi-netavyam[KVI2_N_1.1] |

(BPN2)

rŒjŒ nivasya kimapi[SNC_N_2.1] dhyŒyan ti hati | (BPN82)

kasyacit[SNC_p_6.1] ghamedhina ghŒt annam Œniya bhavat

bhojayitum icchŒmi | (BPN82)

kasyŒpi[SNC_p_6.1] bŒdhŒ mŒ[AVN]_bht[P_lun_1.1] | (BPN83)

tatra muni kacana[SNC_p_2.1] pradeam pradarayan avocat |

(CR40)

kacit[SNC_p_1.1] yaka rŒmagiryŒrameu vasati cakre. (Meghaduta)

asti kasmicit[SNC_p_7.1] vanoddee kacit pulinda (Pa.)

kaicit[SNC_p_3.3] kŒmapiŒca iti dhikkta.

aya tu tapasv loka kenŒpi[SNC_p_3.1] asadvŒdena svargam

abhi-kŒkate.

kāsvit[SNC_s_1.1] avagu hanavat nār.

Even the usage of katipaya is seen in the sence of indefinite pronouns.

Eg. katipayai[SNC_p_3.3] eva ahobhi divyŒkŒra purua

d avŒn. dinaih katipayaih[SNC_p_3.3] eva vivŒhah bhavitŒ ca me.

varai katipayai[SNC_p_3.3] eva grathitasya svarai iva.

anantāmayasya aho geyasya iva vicitratā..

Relative Pronoun

SarvaNŒman SŒmbandhika - SNS is the tag used for relative pronoun. In Sanskrit yad is the relative pronoun. It has forms in all the genders. It always has a relation with the demonstrative pronoun tad.

Eg. yŒ[SNS_s_1.1] niŒ sarva-bhtŒnŒ tasyŒ jŒgarti sayam |

yasyŒ[SNS_s_6.1] jŒgrati bhtŒni sŒ niŒ payata mune || GtŒ II.69

yasya[SNS_p_6.1] anta na vidu surŒ sura-gaŒ devŒya tasmai

nama |

ye[SNS_p_1.3] yathŒ mŒ pra-padyante tŒn tathŒ eva bhajŒmi aham |

(GtΠIV.11)

yŒni[SNS_n_1.3] ligŒni sagrŒme bhavanti vijayiyatŒm | tŒni sarvŒi

bhagavan rotum icchŒmi tattvata || (M.BhŒrata VI.4.15)

 

Adjectives

NŒmaVIeaa NVI

All the qualifiers of nouns which follow the gender, number, and case of the nouns and not belonging to the categories of numerals, participles and pronouns are called Simple adjectives (positive degree).

Eg. aho dantilasya mahat[NVI_n_1.1] dptatva[NB_n_1.1] yat

rŒja-mahim Œ-ligati | (Pa.)

tasyΠdharma-para[NVI_n_1.1] vijitendriya[NVI_n_1.1]

vairavaopama[NVI_n_1.1] lokasya pari-rakitΠ[NVI_n_1.1]

daaratha nŒma rajari avartata | (Bal.)

pra-yaccha anurpŒbhya[NVI_s_4.3] mahibhya[N_s_4.3] | (BŒl.)

tam purua abhivŒdya paramayŒ[NVI_s_3.1] mudŒ[N_s_3.1]

sam-apjayat | (BŒl.)

mŒrge santi bahni[NVI_n_1.3] madhurŒi[NVI_n_1.3]

ŒmraphalŒni[N_n_1.3] kharjra-phalŒni[N_n_1.3] ca | (BPN79)

reyasi[NVI_n_1.3] bahu-vighnŒni[NVI_n_1.3] |

vatsa ! ruu , kacit pratipaka te pitara nir-jitya , sakalŒ[NVI_s_2.1] mahm[N_s_2.1] ŒtmasŒt akarot | (BPN77)

NŒmaVIeaa TulanŒtmaka NVIT

The adjective used to compare quality between the two nouns is represented by the tag NŒmaVIeaa TulanŒtmaka NVIT. The words having this tag will have either tarap suffix or yasun suffix.

Eg. mŒthurŒ pŒ aliputrakebhya ŒhyatarŒ[NVIT_p_1.3] |

daranyatarŒ[NVIT_p_1.3] | pa yŒsa[NVIT_p_1.3] |

laghyŒsa[NVIT_p_1.3] || (KŒikŒ - A . V.3.57)

abhijŒtatarŒ[NVIT_s_1.1] etŒsu rŒjan rŒju kŒ vada |

(KathŒs.11.18.36)

aho ! balya[NVIT_p_1.1] khalu bhta asmi | (A. VII.15)

asti baddha matpitu kanyŒn[NVIT_p_1.1] bhrŒtŒ[N_p_1.1]

prahŒravarmŒ | (Da.)

alpyasŒ[NVIT_n_3.1] mlyena[N_n_3.1] mahŒrha vajra-vastu

mΠastu me labhyam | (Da.)

NŒmaVIeaa AtiayavŒci NVIA

The adjective used to show excelling or superceding sense of a quality among the nouns is represented by NŒmaVIeaa AtiayavŒci NVIA tag. The words having this tag will have either tamap suffix or isthan suffix.

Eg. tayo vinŒŒya jye ha[NVIA_p_2.1] putra[N_P_2.1] rŒma dŒtum

arhasi | (BŒl.)

Œrya abhirpa-bhyi hŒ[NVIA_s_1.1] pariat[N_s_1.1] iyam | (A. I)

na ata kŒryatama[NVIA_n_1.1] manye rae bhmasya rakaŒt |

(M.BhŒrata 6.16.14)

ida[SNN_n_2.1] tu te guhyatama[NVIA_n_2.1] pra-vakyŒmi

anasyave | (GtŒ)

 

Numerals

Cardinal Numerals SAMkhya SAM tag and Ordinal Numerals SAMkhyeya SAMY tag

Eg. ahna ttya[SAMY_p_1.1] yŒma[N_p_1.1] pari-vartate | (BPN82)

saptame[SAMY_n_7.1] vayasi[N_n_7.1] eva nirasta asi , nirdhana asi, nirŒraya asi , kim karavŒi[P_lo _3.1] mandabhŒga ? (BPN76)

tasya ca kausalyŒ sumitrŒ kaikey iti tisra[SAM_s_1.3] bhŒryŒ[N_s_1.3] abhavan | (BŒl.)

imŒni catvŒri[SAM_n_1.3] api pada-jŒtŒni[N_n_1.3] santi etasmin Œstre | (Nirukta - Durgavtti)

paitŒnŒ pacaat [SAM_S_1.1] atra ti hati. (Pa.)

 

Participles

Present Participle tags Kdanta VartamŒna 1 KV1 tag The Krdanta-s ending in the at suffix are tagged KV1 tag and Kdanta Vartamana 2 KV2 tag The Kdanta-s ending in the Œnac and kŒnac suffixes are tagged KV2 tag. These participles are formed directly with the primary root, or with the seconday roots and according they take the extra tags of the secondary derivations.

Eg. svapanta[KV1_p_2.1] ti hanta[KV1_p_2.1]

kranta[KV1_p_2.1] vŒ api bhagavŒn tvŒm pari-rakatu | (BPN76)

pa hata[KV1_p_6.1] na asti murkhatvam japata [KV1_p_6.1] na asti

pŒtakam | maunina kalaha na asti na bhayam ca asti jŒgrata [KV1_p_6.1] || (SubhŒita)

dradaranasya kŒcit vijŒpikŒ vidyŒlaya gacchata[KV1_p_2.3] trn[SAM_p_2.3] bŒlakŒn[N_p_2.3] darayati | (CandamŒma)

sutŒrtha tapyamŒnasya[KV2_p_6.1] api suta na ajŒyata | (BŒl.)

teŒ dŒra-kriyŒ prati cintayati[KV1_p_7.1] daarathe[NA_p_7.1] , visvŒmitra mahŒ-muni ayodhyŒ pra-pede | (BŒl.)

tata caturdae vare yŒcamŒnŒ[KV2_p_1.3] svaka vasu | na alabhanta mahŒrŒja tata yuddha avartata || (M.BhŒrata. I.55.41)

kacit[SNC_p_1.1] prŒjapatya nara vaitŒnŒt vaivŒnarŒt utthŒya

putryate[Nd_KV1_p_4.1] daarathŒya[NA_p_4.1] amtaprŒya

pŒyasa pra-ayacchat | (CR25)

cikitsyamŒna[Sn_KV2_p_1.1] varte | (BNP66)

tŒ kaitavena uruamŒa[Sn_KV2_p_1.1] atadhŒrapŒi garbham saptadhŒ[AVKV] nir-bhidya nir-jagŒma | (CR59)

 

Future Participle tags Kdanta Agami 1 - KA1 and Kdanta Agami 2 KA2 tags. The kdanta-s having the at and Œnac along with the -sya infix respectively are tagged with KA1 and KA2 tags. Participles formed form the secondary suffixes get the secondary derivative extra tags in the beginning of the tag.

Eg. yotsyamŒnŒn[KA2_p_2.3] aveke aham | (GtŒ)

satyasandha te[SNU_6.1] pitŒ pratirutŒrtha-paripŒlanŒrtha vanŒya pra-sthŒsyamŒna[KA2_p_1.1] kvacit[AV] pra-sthŒpayati[Ni_p_la _1.1] yuvŒm[SNM_2.2] idŒnm[AV] | (BPN78)

 

Past Participles tags Kdanta Bhta 1 KB1 tag and Kdanta Bhta 2 KB2 tags. The kdanta-s ending in the kta suffix are tagged with KB1 tag and kdanta-s ending with the ktavat suffix are tagged with the KB2 tag. Again the participles formed form the secondary suffixes get the secondary derivative tages in the beginning of the tag.

Eg. aya ca rŒja-snu[N_p_1.1] bhavŒnyŒ putratvena

pari-kalpita[KB1_p_1.1] | (Da.)

sarvatra kivadant[N_s_1.1] sa-jŒtŒ[KB1_S_1.1] asti | (Da.)

manunŒ svaya nirmitŒ[KB1_s_1.1] ayodhyŒ nŒma nagar Œst | (BŒl.)

nidrŒa ta rŒja-hamsa nirbhara ghtavati[KB2_P_7.1] mayi[SNU_7.1] , sa bandhanŒt mocayitu mŒnuyŒ vŒcŒ bahudhŒ vi-alŒpt | (BPN10)

kimartha asi nightavŒn[KB2_p_1.1] anŒgasŒ sarasvatm ?

 

Verbs

A verb tag consists of the 10 word class tags which are called lakAra tags or tense & mood tags

laTV LaTV Vartamana Present Tense (bhavati)

liTB LiTB Bhuta Past Tense (bhabhuva)

luTAg Agami Future Tense (bhavita)

lRuTAg LRuT Agami Future Tense (bhavisyati)

loTA LoT Ajna Imperative mood (bhavatu)

la~gB La~g Bhuta Past Tense (abhavat)

li~gVi Vidhi li~g Potential mood (bhavet)

li~gAs Ashir li~g Benedictive mood (bhuyat)

lu~gB Lu~g Bhuta Past Tense (abhut)

lRu~gS LRu~g Sanketa Contitional mood (abhavisyat)

all these wordclass tags are prefixed/postfixed by the sub tags in the following order:

         verbal prefix sub-tag (if any) - UPA (upasarga or upapada)

         verbal prefix base sub-tags (if it is derived verbal base) - Ni ijanta - causal, Sn sannanta - desiderative, Nd nāmadhātu - nominal, Yn - yaanta and yaluganta frequentive or intensive

         verbal prefix pada sub-tags P (parasmai)and A (Atmane)

         verbal prefix voice sub-tags (active- kartari is the default which is unmarked)- Kr -Karmani andBh Bhave

         verbal postfix sub-tag person (purua) and number (vacana) 1.1 through 3.3

examples:

ta nnam ea dhŒvanta jighkati[Sn_P_laTV_1.1] dhanajaya

ka iva Œcarati = kati[Nd_P_laTV_1.1]

dedpyate[Yn_A_laTV_1.1] sphuradrami-ikhŒjŒla abjin-pati.

kausaly Œ ajanayat[Ni_P_la~gB_1.1] rŒma sarvalakaa-sayuta.

pa hyate[A_Kr_laTV_1.1] ; bhyate[A_Bh_laTV_1.1]

 

Indeclinables

AVyaya general tag AV The particles and the unclassified indeclinables are tagged as AV.

Eg. sukumŒrŒ khalu[AV] iyam ? (BPN76)

ambhave nama[AV] svasti[AV] prajŒbhya | agnaye svŒhŒ[AV] |

ilŒ-var iva parvata | (Raghu. IV)

na yotsye iti[AV] govindam uktvŒ t babhva ha[AV] | (GtŒ)

rŒma nŒma[AV] janai ruta | (RŒm.)

 

AVyaya SŒmbandhika AVS - Relative indeclinable - These are the indeclinables fromed from the relative yad.

Eg. yatra[AVS] yogevara ka yatra[AVS] pŒrtha dhanur-dhara |

tatra sr vijaya bhtih dhruvŒ nti mati mama || (GtŒ)

yadi[AVS] samŒjŒ , tarhi[AVS] sŒdhayŒmi | (BPN80)

yathŒ[AVS] rŒjŒ tathŒ[AVS] prajŒ|

 

AVyaya SamucCayavŒci AVSC Conjuctives The words which act as phrase, sentence connectors are tagged with this AVSC tag.

Eg. rŒma ca[AVSC] ka ca[AVSC] |

ata[AVSC] asmŒka ubhodarka vaca vŒcyam eva |

 

AVyaya Viyogavaci AVV - Disjuctives The words which act as sentence or phrase breakers are tagged with this tag AVV

Eg. bhuvi vŒ[AVV] divi vŒ[AVV] mama astu vŒsa | (MukundamŒlŒ)

atha_vŒ[AVV] yoginŒm eva kule bhavati dhmatŒm | (GtŒ)

 

AVyaya NiedhŒrthaka AVN Words having negative sense are tagged with AVN tag.

Eg. na_hi[AVN] na_hi[AVN] rakati uk karae | (Moham.)

imŒ ca te bhagin mŒ[AVN] rodaya , mŒ[AVN] khedaya , mŒ[AVN]

parua rŒvaya sukumŒrŒ khalu iyam ? (BPN76)

 

Avyaya PrŒnŒrthika AVP Words which imply questions are tagged with this tag.

Eg. api[AVP] tapah vardhate ? (A. I)

kaccit[AVP] etat ruta pŒrtha ? (GtŒ)

kva[AVP] srya-prabhava vaa

kva[AVP] ca alpa-viayΠmati ? (Raghu.I)

kim[AVP] evam[AV] ud-ghoyate rajΠ? (BPN)

 

 

AVyaya KriyŒVieaa AVKV Adverb tag All the other words which act like an adverb are tagged with this tag. And also all the postpositions (upapada).

Eg. manda[AVKV] manda[AVKV] veu Œprayantam

(KakarŒmta)

anai[AVKV] anai[AVKV] upa-ramet buddhyŒ dhti-ghtayŒ | (GtŒ)

tena vinŒ[AVKV] ta api[AVKV] na calati |

sarvathŒ[AVKV] dhairyam Œ-lambya vartasva | (BPN)

AVyaya KtvŒnta AVK - Gerund The Sanskrit gerund words ending with the kt suffix -ktvŒ are tagged with this AVK tag

Eg. tatra ekagra mana ktvŒ[AVK] yujyŒt | (GtŒ)

vivŒmitrasya bhŒitam rutvŒ[AVK] muhrta nisaja

babhva | (BŒl.)

aha vaivŒnara bhutvŒ[AVK] prŒinŒ deham Œ-rita | GtŒ XV.14

 

AVyaya Lyabanta AVL gerund This gerund words ending in the lyap suffix and having prepositions (upa-sarga or upa-pada) are tagged with this AVL

Eg. putra-vilea-kŒtarasya daarathasya vacanam ni-amya[AVL]

vivŒmitra kupitah babhŒe | (BŒl.)

sarvathŒ dhairyam Œ-lambya[AVL] vartasva | (BPN)

vatsa ! ruu , kacit pratipaka te pitara nir-jitya[AVL] , sakalŒ mahm ŒtmasŒt[AVKV] akarot | (BPN77)

 

AVyaya Tumunnanta AVT infinitives The words which end in the suffix tum are infinitives and are tagged as AVT.

Eg. ka tŒtam abhi-yoddhum[AVT]  e ? (BPN78)

tayo vinŒŒya jye ha putra rŒma me dŒtum[AVT] arhasi | (BŒl.)

 

UDgŒra Tag Interjection tag

Eg. aho_bata[UD] mahat-papam kartum vyavasitah vayam | (GtŒ)

hŒ[UD] hanta[UD] asmi mandabhagŒ | (BPN79)

ahaha[UD] ! kim evam ud-ghoyate rajΠ? (BPN)